Thu. Jun 13th, 2024

On-Board Chargers for Electric Vehicle Charging: Advantages and Challenges

electric charging station franchises in India

Charging electric vehicles relies on a charger, which has a direct impact on the speed and effectiveness of the EV battery charging process. The electric vehicle assiduity and charging station franchise India encompasses four crucial factors that determine the effectiveness and speed of charging a charging string, a charging station, an onboard charger, and the weakest link in the charging chain. Its primary function is to convert AC power into DC power. 

Here are some advantages of using an on-board charger for EV charging:

  • Control of Current and Voltage

An onboard charger allows EV users to regulate the current and voltage according to the specific requirements of the electric vehicle battery. This helps in preserving the lifespan of the EV batteries by enabling voltage or current control mode.

  • Constant Current Charging

On-board chargers ensure that EV users can charge their vehicles at a consistent current. This helps maintain charging speed and efficiency. When the voltage at both ends of the battery reaches specific amplitude, the charger switches to stable voltage charging. This efficient and fast charging strategy is a crucial aspect of the onboard charger.

  • Compatibility with AC Power

One significant benefit of using an onboard charger is its ability to operate with readily-available AC power. By simply installing an extension lead, EV users can plug their vehicles into any of the billions of outlets found in buildings or charging stations. This widespread availability of AC power makes charging convenient and accessible.

Challenges faced when using on-board chargers:

  • Design Challenges 

Manufacturers face several design challenges when developing the power system for onboard chargers. One of the main difficulties is meeting high-efficiency requirements while working with limited space, particularly in the case of OBCs. To ensure efficient charging and reduce charging time, manufacturers need to address these design challenges effectively.

  • Environmental Challenge 

The automotive environment poses a significant challenge for onboard charger power systems. Manufacturers must consider factors such as extreme temperatures, vibrations, and substantial amounts of conducted and radiated electrical noise. Designs need to withstand these environmental conditions and ensure long-lasting performance.

  • Heat Generation Reduction Challenge 

Minimizing heat generation during charging is an ongoing challenge in onboard charger power system design. Higher efficiency translates to less waste heat generation, which reduces the need for thermal management. Manufacturers often have to incorporate additional heat sinks in the OBC design to achieve such efficiencies. However, the limited space within modern cars poses constraints as the increased size and weight of the power system can negatively impact the vehicle’s overall efficiency.

  • Challenges with Regulatory Compliance 

Regulatory compliance presents another significant challenge for onboard chargers. Meeting power factor rules set by the grid is essential when electric vehicle users connect their vehicles for charging. Designers typically employ a boost converter for power factor correction (PFC) to address the AC input challenge. This converter delivers a high-level DC voltage to a DC-DC converter integrated into the charging system, responsible for charging the electric vehicle batteries. Ensuring compliance with these regulations adds complexity to the design process.


On-board chargers play a fundamental role in electric charging station franchises in India and will continue to be of utmost importance. They offer efficient charging capabilities while being compact and lightweight. Despite these benefits, designers of onboard chargers face various challenges during the design process. To meet the demanding requirements of onboard chargers in the electric vehicle industry, manufacturers must successfully address these significant challenges and thrive in this rapidly evolving industry.

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